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Coal Productions

Global Coal Production

Production values are calculated over not raw coal but marketable quantities. Data of Turkey are assessed in accordance with same criteria. As seen in Table 3, global hard coal production became 6 billion 276 million tons in 2013 and Brown coal production became 1,5 billion tons in the same year. Whereas total coal production was 3 billion tons in 1971, it was seen to reach 7 billion 823 million tons in 2013. Considering China produced 3,5 million tons by itself in 2013, level of the increase in coal production may be figured out. In 2013 China carried out 45% of global production and 57% of global hard coal by itself (3,5 billion tons) (Table 3). There is a difference of 3 billion tons between China and India following it (9%) in global hard coal production. Production of USA, third in hard coal production is equivalent to only 12% of China’s production (6% of global production). Australia becomes fourth with 373 million tons (5,9%). Turkey’s hard coal production ranked last with 2,8 billion tons. When compared with Turkey’s reserve of 14,5 billion tons, It is possible to say that China is capable of producing a quantity as much as Turkey’s total reserve in about 4 years. China doesn’t take any place in the table of brown coal production (lignites are given within hard coal). USA producing 472 million tons of total production which is equivalent to 1 billion 547 million tons takes its place. USA carried our 31% of global brown coal production in 2013. Indonesia (14%) and Germany (11,8%) follows USA respectively with 219 million tons and 183 million tons. Turkey becomes sixth (63,3 million tons) in world ranking for brown coal production by following Australia and Russian Federation.

Turkey’s Coal Production

Turkey’s coal production is carried out on total 469 sites of which 293 openpit (25 public) and 176 underground (6 public) facilities. Totally 31 of them are operated by public organizations. Turkey’s coal production is shared by private sector and predominantly public sector. Whereas total coal production was 54 million tons in 2002, it became 90,9 million tons in 2009, 66 million 911 thousand tons in 2013 and reached to 77 million tons in 2014. Turkey’s hard coal production is carried out by TTK in Zonguldak. Raw coal production was 2 million 789 thousand tons in 2013 and 2,68 million tons in 2014. This value was recorded as 4,57 million tons in 1974 and 2,62 million tons of saleable coal in 2011 (Table 4). TTK gave only a part of production to private sector through royalty. Brown coal (lignite+asphaltite) is produced by public organizations, TKİ (electricity generation and heating) and EÜAŞ (electricity generation) and by private companies. Turkey’s total lignite production (including public sector) was 78 million tons in 2012, 63,3 million tons in 2013 and 74,34 million tons in 2014. This figure was 84,3 million tons in 2008. Private sector’s production was 38 million 148 thousand tons in 2014. Coal production is given out by tender to private sector for the purpose of electricity generation. This is given as both production on its name and privatization. There are also power plants operated by EÜAŞ itself. This is discussed in details in the following sections of the report.

Coal Consumptions

Global Coal Consumption

Global coal consumption was totally 7 billion 875 million tons in 2013; 6 billion 368 million tons and 1,5 billion tons of it were consumed respectively as hard coal and brown coal. As in production China carried out 61% of total hard coal consumption by itself. USA and India were the closest countries in ranking with respectively 843 million tons (10,7%) and 791 million tons (10%). The difference in consumption rate with other countries is very high.
Turkey’s share in global consumption in 2013 was 1% with 84 million tons in total consumption, 0,4% in hard coal with 28 million tons and 3,7% in brown coal with 56 million tons.

Turkey’s Coal Consumption

Turkey’s hard coal consumption was 28,18 million tons in 2013. This value was 31,46 million in 2012. 11 million tons of hard coal was consumed in our country in 2001, reaching to 26 million tons in 2007. Total usage areas are as follows; 41.8% in generating electricity, 20,1% in, housing and services,,19,8% in coking plants 9,8% in cement production and 3,4% in iron and steels sectors (2013).
Whereas 75,65 million tons of brown coal (lignite+ asphaltite) was consumed in 2009, it decreased to 56 million tons in 2013. The said value was 45,5 million tons in 2004. According to the data for 2013 it was used at most in electricity generation by 85,4%. Remaining was used mainly for heating purposes.

Coal Trade

Electricity Generation and Coal in Turkey

Turkey’s electricity production is 250.435 GWh in 2014 and 48% of it (120.437 GWh) is obtained from natural gas. Coalfired electricity generation which was 74.040 GWh in 2014 constitutes 29,6 of total quantity. Share of imported coal in coal-sourced electricity generation is 46,7% and its rate in total is 13,8%. Share of local coal in total coal is 53,3% and its rate in total is 15,8%. Hydroelectric sources which are considered in the class of renewable energy with 40.396 GWh (16,1%) take third place in electricity generation. When wind, geothermal and other renewable sources are added, share of renewable energy in total electricity is seen to be 20,9%

Dependence in Foreign Energy

Whereas share of coal use in electricity energy was 33% in 1970, it decreased to 24% in 1980s and increased up to 49% in 1986. It became 29,6% in 2014. But considering local coal rates beside total coal figures import coal i.e. foreign dependency is seen to constitute second factor beside natural gas. The entire 49% in 1986 was completely made up of locally produced coal, the said rate decreased unfortunately to 15,8% in 2014. In 1980s the fact that natural gas operated power plants come into play inflicted a heavy blow into coal and decreased the rates enormously. Reasons like the fact that total share of imported coal in electric energy being 61,9%, foreign dependency in energy, security of supply and foreign trade deficit require immediate precautions.
Greenhouse gas emissions in Turkey Turkey became a party to The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2004 and has started to publish its greenhouse inventories since 2006. According to the agreement greenhouse gases of which emissions are determined are as follows: Carbondioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), dinitrogenmonoxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). According to 2013 inventory published by Turkish Statistical Institute, Turkey produces less than 1% of global greenhouse emissions. This rate is in proportion to Turkey’s population and economic magnitude. Considering the sectoral distribution of greenhouse for 2012 shares of energy, industry, waste and agricultural activities are 70,2%,14,4%, 8,2% and 7,3% respectively. Rate of energy in total greenhouse gas emission (70%) are same for 1990 and 2012 (Table 12). Data of greenhouse gas emissions for 1990 and 2012 are listed in the table. Rate of increase in total greenhouse gas emission for 12 years is 133,5%. According to this, carbondioxide, methane and dinitrogenmonoxide are important among the six gases measured as greenhouse gas and others are considered as negligible. Considering the rates of increase within 12 years there are three gases which are most negligible and increase in them is seen to be 1100%. But since their rate in total is 1,4% for 2012, they are not taken into consideration. Considering first three gases methane (81%) and dinitrogenmonoxide (21%) are seen to be under 100% and carbondioxide is remarkable with 152,5%. All these values attribute the reason of the increase in greenhouse gas to carbondioxide and carbon emissions in common use.

Carbon Gas Emission in the World and Turkey

They are considered in two parts as energy- related carbon emissions and coalrelated carbon emissions (International Energy Agency). Total global carbon emission became 31.734 million tons in 2012 and coal-related carbon emission became 13.924 million tons (Table 13). As seen in the table, China leads the way in both emissions. Its carbon emissions are 8.206 million tons (25,86%) and 6.764 million tons (48,58%) respectively in energy-related carbon emissions and coal-related energy emissions. USA follows China in both emissions with 5.074 (18%) and 1.613 (11,58%) million tons. Turkey ranks 19th and 15th respectively in energy-related carbon emissions and coal-related carbon emissions with 302 and 139 million tons.
Total emissions of both countries are 44% and 60% respectively in energy and coal related carbon emissions. So, half of the carbon emissions in the world are caused by these two countries. Russia, Japan and Germany follow these countries. Actually majority of the global carbon emissions are caused by the said five countries. Turkey is responsible for 0,95% of total global energy-related carbon emissions and 0,99% of total global coalrelated carbon emissions. Coal-related emission constitutes 46% of energy emission in the country. Given our topic is coal and considering coal-related carbon emission, our country is found not to be so responsible for carbon emission as exaggerated and considering the power plants to be established with new and clean technology its place in global carbon emission is understood not to be changed so.

Coal-Fired Thermal Plants